Managing the human-wildlife interface to sustain the flow of agro-ecosystem services and prevent illegal wildlife trafficking in the Kgalagadi and Ghanzi Drylands

Lead country


Participating countries


Project status

Under implementation

Implementing period

From November 1, 2017 to November 1, 2024

SDGs addressed by this project

SDG targets

  1. 15.9 Integrate ecosystem values into national planning
  2. 15.5 Reduce habitat degradation, halt biodiversity loss, extinction
  3. 15.7 End wildlife poaching, illegal species trafficking

Project ID: 5590

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Technical team

  • Ecosystems and Biodiversity Programme

Technical area(s)

  • Ecosystem management and restoration


  • Agrobiodiversity
  • Ecosystem-based adaptation
  • Wildlife conservation


  • Conserved areas
  • Forests


  • Productive landscapes/Seascapes
  • Dryland forests

Transformed sector(s)

  • Agriculture
  • Livestock
  • Tourism

UNDP role(s)

  • Convening / Partnerships / Knowledge Sharing


  • Management operation
  • Governance
  • Capacity building


  • Wildlife and habitat conservation
  • Sustainable land management
  • Ecosystem mitigation and adaptation
  • Laws enforcement/ Regulation
  • Surveillance & Compliance
  • Institutional framework
  • Sustainable agriculture practices and use of resources (TP 2, 7, 8, 9)
  • Institutional capacity building
  • Community capacity building

Social inclusion

  • Local community/CSOs
  • Private sector

Gender equality

  • Gender-responsive policies
  • Awareness raising (on gender)

Gender result effectiveness scale

  • Gender targeted


  • Systems pathway
  • People pathway

Risk reduction target(s)

  • Reduce exposure
  • Hazard control/mitigation

SDG target(s)

  • 15.9 Integrate ecosystem values into national planning
  • 15.5 Reduce habitat degradation, halt biodiversity loss, extinction
  • 15.7 End wildlife poaching, illegal species trafficking

Conventions and protocols


Private sector(s)

  • Individuals/Entrepreneurs
  • Small and medium-sized enterprises
  • Large corporations

Hot topic

  • Structural/system transformation
  • Food and agricultural commodities strategy

About this project


Project Summary: Natural resources management in the Kalahari landscape is characterised by competition and conflict between conservation goals, economic development and livelihoods. Home to large herds of angulates and iconic predators, the landscape was dominated by low density wildlife with hunter gatherer livelihoods until borehole farming enabled cattle ranching a few decades ago. The consequent rangeland degradation and ecosystem fragmentation threatens wildlife and economic development. Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) meant to support wildlife-based economic activities and secure migratory corridors linking the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and the Central Kalahari Game Reserve continue to be lost to livestock encroachment, due to delayed gazettement. Wildlife is under additional threat from poaching, wildlife poisoning and illegal wildlife trade (IWT). The recent ban on hunting has reduced benefits from CBNRM (which in the context of Botswana has largely been based on consumptive use (i.e. hunting) of wildlife, reducing incentives for conservation. Stakeholders lack the planning tools, institutional coordination and operational capacities to balance competing needs and optimise environment, socio and economic outcomes. In particular there is weak coordination in tackling poaching, wildlife poisoning and IWT, weak capacities for improving rangeland management and limited incentives for local communities to protect wildlife. The project will remove these barriers using the following strategies: Coordinating capacity for combating wildlife crime/trafficking and enforcement of wildlife policies and regulations at district, national and international levels (Component 1); Integrated landscape management practices at community and resource-use levels to reduce competition between land-uses and increase agro-ecosystem productivity (component 2); Development of CBNRM for conservation and SLM to secure livelihoods and biodiversity (component 3); and, Gender mainstreaming, knowledge management, monitoring and evaluation (Component 4).


To promote an integrated landscape approach to managing Kgalagadi and Ghanzi drylands for ecosystem resilience, improved livelihoods and reduced conflicts between wildlife conservation and livestock production.

USD $6,146,789

Grant amount

USD $22,500,000

Leveraged amount (co-financing)


Source(s) of fund

Sources of fund


  • Global Environment Facility – Trust Fund ($6,146,789)

Implementing partner(s)

  • Government of Botswana

Project metrics

Related resources

Geospatial information

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Project reports and documentation